StedmanFamiliesResearchCenter
One Name Study of the Stedman/Steadman/Steedman Families
First Name:  Last Name: 
[Advanced Search]  [Surnames]
Lord Chief Justice, Sir John Vaughan, of Crosswood

Lord Chief Justice, Sir John Vaughan, of Crosswood

Male 1603 - 1674  (71 years)

Personal Information    |    Event Map    |    All    |    PDF

  • Name John Vaughan 
    Prefix Lord Chief Justice, Sir 
    Suffix of Crosswood 
    Born 14 Sep 1603  Trawsgoed, Cardiganshire, Wales, UK Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Gender Male 
    Died 10 Dec 1674 
    Notes 
    • VAUGHAN, Syr JOHN (1603-1674), barnwr; g. 14 Medi 1603 yn Nhrawsgoed, sir Aberteifi, mab hynaf Edward Vaughan a Lettice (Stedman); gw. yr ysgrif ?Vaughan o'r Trawsgoed.? Addysgwyd ef yn ysgol Worcester (1613-8), yng Ngholeg Eglwys Crist, Rhydychen (1618-21), a'r Inner Temple (ei dderbyn yno yn 1621, ei alw i'r Bar yn 1630, a dyfod yn ?bencher? yn 1664). Yn y Star Chamber y gwnaeth ei enw ar y cychwyn. Etholwyd ef i'r Senedd dros fwrdeisdref Aberteifi yn Ebrill 1640 a Rhagfyr 1640, ac efallai mor gynnar â Chwefror 1627/8. Ychydig o hanes dilys sydd amdano o 1642 hyd 1660. Cynigiodd Clarendon swydd barnwr iddo yn 1660, ond fe'i gwrthododd. Etholwyd ef drachefn i'r Senedd yn Ebrill 1661, dros sir Aberteifi y tro hwn. Daeth yn un o brif arweinwyr y ?country party? ac ymhlith yr huotlaf yn y T?. Bu'n flaenllaw yn yr ymosodiadau ar Clarendon yn 1667. Cafodd ddyrchafiad sydyn ym Mai 1668 i fod yn brif farnwr llys y Common Pleas, a gwnaed ef yn farchog. Enillodd enwogrwydd arhosol am ei ddyfarniad pwysig yn ?Bushell's Case?, na ddylid cosbi rheithwyr am roddi dedfryd yn groes i gyfarwyddyd y barnwr. Bu'n gyfeillgar â rhai o ddynion disgleiriaf ei oes ? John Selden, a gyflwynodd iddo ei Vindiciae Maris Clausi; Thomas Hobbes, a ymwelai ag ef deirgwaith yr wythnos ar un pryd; Syr Matthew Hale, ei gymydog yn Acton; ac Edward Stillingfleet, a draddododd ei bregeth angladd. Bu f. 10 Rhagfyr 1674, a chladdwyd ef, yn ôl pob tebyg, yn y Temple Church, Llundain.

      Rhoes beth cynhorthwy i luoedd y brenin yn ystod y Rhyfel Cartrefol (gw. J. R. Phillips, Civil War, ii, 154-7), ond i bob pwrpas ymddeolodd o fywyd cyhoeddus tan yr Adferiad. Dywedir iddo helpu'r Seneddwyr i gipio castell Aberystwyth yn 1646 (Cambrian Register, i, 166). Ni ellir profi hynny. Rhestrwyd ef ymysg y ?delinquents? ar 29 Mehefin 1648. Ei dystiolaeth ei hun yn 1660 oedd iddo gael ei ddirwyo a bod ei gartref wedi ei lwyr ysbeilio i'w ddirfawr golled (S.P. Dom., Charles II, 29/8, 126; gw. hefyd Cambrian Quarterly Magazine, i, 61). Yn 1660, apwyntiwyd ef yn stiward Mefenydd a phedair arglwyddiaeth arall yn perthyn i'r Goron yn sir Aberteifi. Penododd yr iarll Carbery ef yn un o'i ddirprwy-raglawiaid dros y sir. Daeth rhai materion Cymreig i'w sylw yn y Senedd. Pan gododd dadl yngl?n ag etholiad yn nhref Caernarfon, rhoddwyd ef ar y pwyllgor i archwilio'r broblem am ei fod yn deall, gellir tybio, ?the ancient true Celtique or Brittish tongue? (Jnl. of Sir Simon d'Ewes, gol. Notestein, 455). Yn 1662, yr oedd yn un o dri a enwyd i drafod y priodoldeb o gyfieithu'r Llyfr Gweddi newydd yn Gymraeg (Commons Jnl., viii, 409). Ymddiddorai yn hanes a hynafiaethau Cymru. Fel un o ysgutorion ewyllys Selden, yr oedd ganddo allwedd i lyfrgell amhrisiadwy'r sgolor hwnnw. Cadwodd ohoni (gw. dan Field, Theophilus) lawysgrif ?Llyfr Landaf? a rhoes ei benthyg i Robert Vaughan, Hengwrt, i'w chopïo (gw. ysgrif E. D. Jones yn Cylch. Ll.G.C., iv, 123). Yn un o'i opiniynau mwyaf nodedig, dywedodd nad oedd hawl gan y llysoedd yn Westminster i anfon ?final process? i Gymru (Reports, 395). Yr oedd ei awdurdod yn ddigon i ddiogelu'r llysoedd Cymreig am gyfnod. Sylfaenodd ei ddadl ar safle Cymru yn y Canol Oesoedd, ac, yn ei farn ef, ni newidiwyd y sefyllfa yn hyn o beth gan ddeddfau uno Harri VIII. Mor ddiweddar â 1745, defnyddiwyd ei ddadleuon yn effeithiol yn achos Lampley v. Thomas, pan benderfynwyd na ellid gyrru gw?s ?latitat? i Gymru (English Reports, 1 Wilson, 193). Yn R. v. Athos awgrymodd y barnwr Fortescue ei fod o bosibl yn rhy bleidiol i'w wlad enedigol (?but he being a native of Wales, might be prejudiced in favour of his country,? English Reports, 8 Modern, 145).

      Tyfodd y stad yn Nhrawsgoed yn sylweddol o dan ei ofal. Ar ddechrau ei yrfa prynodd diroedd gwerth £4,300 yn Aberteifi, a thiroedd yn Nhrefaldwyn ar ddiwedd ei oes. Trosglwyddwyd y stad yn gyfan gwbl i'w unig fab, Edward. Goroeswyd ef gan ei wraig, Jane (Stedman). Yr oedd iddynt hefyd ddwy ferch, Anne a Lucy. Y mae dau ddarlun olew o'r prif farnwr yng Nghymru, y naill yng Ngwysaney a'r llall ar fenthyg yn Ll.G.C.

      Llyfryddiaeth:
      D.N.B.;
      Foss, Lives of the Judges, vii, 187;
      rhagymadrodd i Vaughan Reports;
      Trans. Cymm., 1938, 171;
      A. H. Dodd, Trans. Cymm., 1946-7, 59; 1948, 8;
      C.J., i, ii, viii, ix;
      dyddiaduron seneddol Milward (gol. Robbins) a Simonds d'Ewes (gol. Notestein);
      Grey Debates, i;
      State Trials, vi;
      Cal. Inner Temple Records;
      N.L.W. Calendar of Crosswood Deeds;
      Cal. Wynn Papers;
      Cal. S.P. Dom., 1650, 248; 1656-7, 203; 1660-1, 141;
      P.R.O., 29/8, 126; 1661-2, 330;
      Addenda, 1660-70, 648;
      Cal. Ctte. for Adv. of Money, 894;
      Cylch. Ll.G.C., iv, 123;
      Clarendon, Life, 1857, i, 30-1;
      J. R. Phillips, Civil War;
      Verney Memoirs, iii, 177;
      Aubrey, Brief Lives;
      dyddiaduron Pepys (Diaries) ac Evelyn (Diary of John Evelyn);
      Vaughan Reports, 1677 a 1706;
      English Law Reports;
      Holdsworth, History of English Law, i, 128-32;
      S. R. Meyrick, Hist. Cards.;
      K. Esdaile, Temple Monuments;
      Camb. Reg., i;
      Camb. Quart. Mag., i;
      W. R. Williams, Parl. Hist..
      Awdur:
      Yr Athro John Gwynn Williams, M.A., Caerlleon Fawr / Bangor


      VAUGHAN, Sir JOHN (1603-1674), judge; b. 14 Sept. 1603 at Trawsgoed, Cards. He was the eldest son of Edward Vaughan and Lettice (Stedman) (see article on Vaughan family of Trawsgoed). He was educated at Worcester school (1613-18), Christ Church, Oxford (1618-21), and the Inner Temple (he entered in 1621, was called to the Bar in 1630, and became a Bencher in 1664). It was in the Star Chamber that he first made his name. He was elected to Parliament for Cardigan borough in April 1640 and in Dec. 1640, and perhaps as early as Feb. 1627/8. There is little reliable information about him from 1642 to 1660. Clarendon offered him a judgeship in 1660, but he declined it. He was again elected to Parliament in April 1661, this time for Cardigan county. He became one of the principal leaders of the ?country party? and amongst the most eloquent in the House. He was prominent in the attacks on Clarendon in 1667. In May 1668 he was suddenly promoted chief justice of the court of Common Pleas, and knighted. He won lasting fame for his important decision in Bushell's Case, that juries were not to be fined for returning a verdict against the direction of the judge. Some of his friends were men of great distinction ? John Selden, who dedicated to him his Vindiciae Maris Clausi; Thomas Hobbes, who visited him thrice weekly at one period; Sir Matthew Hale, his Acton neighbour; and Edward Stillingfleet, who preached his funeral sermon. He d. on 10 Dec. 1674, and was probably buried in the Temple Church, London.

      He gave some support to the king's forces during the Civil War (see J. R. Phillips, Civil War, ii, 154-7), but he virtually retired from public life until the Restoration. It is said that he helped the Parliamentarians to capture Aberystwyth castle in 1646 (Cambrian Register, i, 166). That cannot be proved. He was listed among the ?delinquents? on 29 June 1648. His own testimony in 1660 was that he was fined and his house ?totally plundered to his greate losse? (S. P. Dom., Charles II, 29/8, 126; see also Cambrian Quarterly Magazine, i, 61). In 1660, he was appointed steward of Mefenydd and four other Crown lordships in Cardiganshire. The earl of Carbery made him one of his deputy-lieutenants for the county. Some Welsh matters came to his attention in Parliament. When a dispute arose concerning an election in Caernarvon town, he was put on the committee to examine the problem, because he knew ?the ancient true Celtique or Brittish tongue? (Jnl. of Sir Simonds d'Ewes, ed. Notestein, 455). In 1662, he was one of three nominated to discuss the suitability of translating the new Prayer Book into Welsh (Commons Jnl., viii, 409). Welsh history and antiquities interested him. As one of the executors of Selden's will, he had access to that scholar's priceless library. He retained (see under Field, Theophilus) the manuscript of the ?Book of Llandaff? and lent it to Rowland Vaughan, Hengwrt, to transcribe (see E. D. Jones in N.L.W. Jnl., iv, 123). In one of his most noteworthy opinions, he held that the West-minister courts could not issue final process into Wales (Reports, 395). His authority was sufficient to safeguard the Welsh courts for a period. He based his argument on the position of Wales in the Middle Ages and, in his belief, the situation was unchanged in this respect by the Acts of Union of Henry VIII. As late as 1745, his arguments were effectively used in the case of Lampley v. Thomas, when it was ruled that writs of ?latitat? could not issue into Wales (English Reports, 1 Wilson, 193). In R. v. Athos, judge Fortescue suggested that ??he being a native of Wales, might be prejudiced in favour of his country? (English Reports, 8 Modern, 145).

      The Crosswood estate grew substantially under his administration. At the beginning of his career he bought lands worth £4,300 in Cardigan, and lands in Montgomeryshire at the end of his life. The estate was transferred intact to his only son, Edward. His wife, Jane (Stedman), survived him. They had also two daughters, Anne and Lucy. There are two oil portraits of the chief justice in Wales, one at Gwysaney and the other on loan to the N.L.W.

      Bibliography:
      D.N.B.;
      Foss, Lives of the Judges, vii, 187;
      Preface to Vaughan Reports;
      Trans. Cymm., 1938, 171;
      A. H. Dodd, Trans. Cymm., 1946-7, 59; 1948, 8;
      C.J., i, ii, viii, ix;
      the parliamentary diaries of Milward (ed. Robbins), and Simonds d'Ewes (ed. Notestein);
      Grey Debates, i;
      State Trials, vi;
      Cal. Inner Temple Records;
      N.L.W. Calendar of Crosswood Deeds;
      Cal. Wynn Papers;
      Cal. S.P. Dom., 1650, 248; 1656-7, 203; 1660-1, 141;
      (P.R.O., 29/8, 126); 1661-2, 330;
      Addenda, 1660-70, 648;
      Cal. Ctte. for Adv. of Money, 894;
      N.L.W. Jnl., iv, 123;
      Clarendon, Life, 1857, i, 30-1;
      J. R. Phillips, Civil War;
      Verney Memoirs, iii, 177;
      Aubrey, Brief Lives;
      diaries of Pepys (Diaries) and Evelyn (Diary of John Evelyn);
      Vaughan Reports, 1677 and 1706;
      English Law Reports;
      Holdsworth, History of English Law, i, 128-32;
      S. R. Meyrick, Hist. Cards.;
      K. Esdaile, Temple Monuments;
      Camb. Reg., i;
      Camb. Quart. Mag., i;
      W. R. Williams, Parl. Hist..
      Author:
      Professor John Gwynn Williams, M.A., Chester / Bangor
      [Dictionary of Welsh Biography down to 1940]
      .......................................

      SIR JOHN VAUGHAN, Kt, who by Charles II. was made Chief Justice of the Court of Common Pleas, A.D. 1668. He represented both the bor. and co. of Cardigan in Parl. (see Members of Parl. for Card. ). His wife was Jane, dau. and co-h. of
      John Stedman, Esq., of Cilcennin, by Anne. dau. of Sir Thomas Johnes, of Abermarlais, by whom he had a son, his successor,
      [Annals and Antiquities of the Counties and County Families of Wales]
      __________________________

      http://www.genuki.org.uk/big/wal/CGN/MembersParl.html

      1661   April 17. John Vaughan of Trawscoed. Eldest son of Edward V. of that place, (H.S. 1618, who d.
                 1635,) b. at Trawscoed 13 Sept. 1603, "matric. at Chr. Ch. Oxford 1623 aged 15," entered the Inner
                 Temple Nov. 1620, where he was called to the Bar 1630, and made a Bencher 1660, obtained a large
                 practise before the Star Chamber. m. Janet eldest dau. and co-heir of John Stedman of Cilcommyn,
                 was M.P. Cardigan 1628-29, Mch. to May 1640 and Dec. 1640 until disabled to sit for his loyalty 1
                 Sept. 1645, co. Card. and Newton (Lancashire) 1661 when he el. to serve for co. Card, until 22 May
                 1668 when he was raised to the bench as Lord Chief Justice of the Common Pleas, was knighted in
                 May 1668, cr. a Serjeant at law 20 May 1668, and presided over the Court of Common Pleas with great
                 dignity and legal acumen until his death 10 Dec. 1674, when he was bur. in the Temple Church, London.
                 Chief Justice Vaughan who refused to take office under the Commonwealth, was a great friend of the
                 learned lawyer John Selden, who made him one of his executors. He was the author of the Reports
                 of Cases decided in the Common Pleas 1665-74, and his portrait was painted in Guildhall, London.
                "To great abilities this respectable Judge united a strong attachment to the English constitution,
                "which prevented his being too great an advocate for the prerogatives of the Crown." On his peti
                tion to the King July 1660 complaining that during the Commonwealth he "was plundered, obliged
                to compound and restrained in his profession as a lawyer, for his loyalty," he was app. Steward of
                Mevenith and 4 other royal manors in co. Card. (Cal. State Papers.) In the above mentioned MS.
                1661, he is however severely handled :--"John Vaughan,--- One that will upon fits, talke loud for
                Monarchy, but scrupulous to wet his finger to advance it. He was named by H.M. one of the Commrs.
                to attend the treaty in the Isle of Wight, but refused it; personally advised Cromwell to put the
                crown on his owne head, personally assisted the taking of Aberystwith, a garrison then kept for his
                late Majesty. These services kept him from sequestration; bore offices in the late several Govern
                ments. He is of good parts, but puts too high a value on them; insolently proud and matchlessly
                pernicious; by lending £800 to Col. Philip Jones and other favourites of the late tymes, procured
                the command of the county he liveth in, to continue in his friends and descendants of this day."
                Information was laid against him as a delinquent 29 June 1648.
    Person ID I2367  Stedman Families of the United Kingdom
    Last Modified 15 Oct 2009 

    Father Edward Vaughan, of Trawscoed,   d. 1635 
    Mother Lettice Stedman,   d. Unknown 
    Family ID F715  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family Jane Stedman,   b. Ystrad-Fflur, Cardigan, Wales, UK Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. Abt 1680 
    Children 
     1. Edward Vaughan, of Trawscoed,   d. 1688
     2. Anne Vaughan,   d. Unknown
     3. Lucy Vaughan,   d. Unknown
    Last Modified 11 Oct 2009 
    Family ID F735  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

  • Event Map
    Link to Google MapsBorn - 14 Sep 1603 - Trawsgoed, Cardiganshire, Wales, UK Link to Google Earth
     = Link to Google Earth